الأحد، 28 فبراير 2021

( Gazetteer of small-scale monuments in prehistoricHadramawt , Yemen : aradiocarbon chronology fromthe RASA - AHSD Project research 1996 – 2008 ) ( المعجم الجغرافي للآثار الصغيرة في عصور ما قبل التاريخ حضرموت ، اليمن : تسلسل زمني للكربون المشع منبحث مشروع RASA - AHSD 1996 - 2008 )

( Gazetteer of small-scale monuments in prehistoricHadramawt , Yemen : aradiocarbon chronology fromthe RASA - AHSD Project research 1996 – 2008 )

( المعجم الجغرافي للآثار الصغيرة في عصور ما قبل التاريخ حضرموت ، اليمن : تسلسل زمني للكربون المشع منبحث مشروع RASA - AHSD 1996 - 2008 )

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• Geometric decoration on limestone slabs 4600–4400 BC
The term used here, ‘limestone slabs’, reflects some
uncertainty about the structure of these features. The well-
dated example here was deliberately destroyed so that the
structure is impossible to reconstruct, but the geometric
motifs can be related to poorly dated pecked images
elsewhere. Some are on dolmens, megalithic structures of
the late fourth to early second millennium BC (Steimer-
Herbet 2004; Palumbo 1992; Prag 1995; Savage 2010;
Steimer-Herbet 2004–2005; 2006; Steimer-Herbet & Cri-
aud 2008; Vinitzky 1990; Zohar 1992). A particularly
well-preserved dolmen (RASA 98-1) (Fig. 3) in Wadi
Shumlya near its mouth in middle Wadi Sana was first
noted and probed by an archaeological team from the
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Sana’a in 1993 (Vogt
& Sedov [n.d.]). The results await full publication by the
German team, but the RASA Project recorded this
monument as a dolmen-like structure on stylistic grounds,
elsewhere dated to the late fourth–early third millennium
BC (e.g. Braemer, Cleuziou & Steimer, 2003; Steimer-
Herbet 2004). Set on a bedrock terrace adjacent to the low
alluvium, the dolmen-like structure offers no precise
evidence for a construction date, but it is situated in the
low terrace favoured by middle fifth-millennium monu-
ment builders of platformed structures and is surrounded
by surface remains dating from the seventh, third and first
millennia BC.
A second enigmatic structure (C67-1) was found as
scattered fragments of limestone slabs embedded in early
Holocene alluvium, providing better means for dating.
Whatever its original state, the structure was destroyed in
antiquity, seemingly an act of iconoclasm, so that modern
remains include a few upright limestone slabs in alluvium
and a number of fire-scorched and shattered limestone slab
fragments in the near vicinity. There was also abundant
bone at the surface, which was not collected. What
remained of the original structure was exposed by natural
gully formation through alluvium, also revealing several .
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• ancient hearths in section. These could be related to the
same level at which the structure was constructed
(AA81815, 4685–4457 BC; AA81816, 4586–4334 BC),
providing an approximate contemporary date. A terminus
ante quem is provided by charcoal from a third hearth
(AA81814, 4690–4406 BC), which also contained a fire-
scorched fragment of limestone slab that could be refitted
to shattered unfired elements from the original structure.
By piecing together limestone fragments, it was possible
to reconstruct aspects of sculpted relief showing parallel
chevron lines. Designs on slabs have been noted at
dolmens in southern Arabia (see Braemer, Cleuziou &
Steimer 2003: fig. 5/b), suggesting that the well-dated but
poorly preserved structure reported here may belong to
that category of monument. In a wider context, geometric
pecked designs also appear on the bodies of cattle in rock
art dated from the sixth to the fourth millennia BC. Such
geometric signs may signify (piebald) domesticated ani-
mals (Zarins 1992: 27) or tribal brands (Nayeem 2000:
343; Khan 2000). The landform context of geometric slabs
and dolmens is the lower terraces near the modern wadi
channel, and such sites link them along with associated
radiometric dates to platformed structures with standing
stones (Figs 4 & 5).
High circular tombs (also called pill-box cairns, conical
cairns, turret graves, qubrrukamy, qubrrudumy), 3100–
2200 BC
The presence of dry-walled stone tombs along the high
edge of plateaus and upper terraces throughout the
southern Jol of Hadramawt has been widely noted (e.g.
Bowen 1958; Doe 1983; Ingrams 1941; Stark 1939;
Philby 1939: 373–379; Vogt & Sedov [n.d.]), but a few
examples have been archaeologically investigated (Bra-
emer et al. 2001; Steimer-Herbet, Davtian & Braemer
2006; Crassard & Hitgen 2007). These tombs are .
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الملخص : 

• زخرفة هندسية على ألواح من الحجر الجيري و تظهر تصاميم منقوشه على أجساد الماشية في الصخور و وجود تمثال من الحجر الجيري جميعها تؤرخ من نهاية الألف السادس و بداية الألف الخامس قبل الميلاد .
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المصدر :

- Gazetteer of small-scale monuments in prehistoricHadramawt , Yemen : aradiocarbon chronology fromthe RASA - AHSD Project research 1996 – 2008 .
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